Astrologically speaking the Cosmos consists of the Sun (☉), the Moon (☽) and the planets Mercury (☿), Venus (♀), Earth (♁), Mars (♂), Jupiter (♃), Saturn (♄), Uranus (♅) and Neptune (♆). (also Pluto (♇)*).
We do not take into account the Asteroids or Planetoids and the Meteorites, because they do not influence present humanity perceptibly; neither the Comets, because we know so little of their influence. We also neglect the moons of the various planets, the influence of which is not to be taken into account. Our moon only forms an exception: by her short distance from the earth, and especially because she was one with the earth before her separate existence, she influences it and all that is on it, very strongly.
Our whole planetary system moves in retrograde direction through the twelve signs of the Zodiac, which like a gigantic ring encircles our Cosmos with numerous other solar-systems. All these solar-systems revolve round one Central Sun, which is supposed to be in the constellation Pleyades (Alcyone).
Our solar system wants 26.000 years to revolve 360 through the 12 signs of the Zodiac. This is called a cosmic year. Our planetary system is now in Aquarius which sign it has recently entered, and where it consequently will remain 26000/12 = 2160 years.
This movement is in opposite direction to the order of the 12 signs of the Zodiac and is called in astronomy the Precession (i. e. backward movement) of the Equinox. The velocity of this retrograde movement is about 50′ a year.
As all planets revolve round the sun and we observe them from the earth, we see the sun and the planets successively pass through the 12 different signs, and with greater velocity when they are closer to the sun; in the order in which the planets are placed above. The moon, however, surpasses the fastest moving planet (Mercury). It does not only move with the earth once in a year round the sun, but has a revolution of its own round the earth which takes only 28 days. When the planets are being treated, these velocities will be spoken of at greater length.
There is also an apparent movement of the 12 signs of the Zodiac as well as of the planets and the moon to know, the movement caused by the revolution of the earth round its axis in 24 hours. Through this revolution round the axis, the whole sphere, passes in 24 hours each point of the earth’s surface and thus every two hours (on an average) there will arise another sign of the Zodiac on the eastern horizon.
For some readers a short explanation of certain terms, used in cosmology, will not be superfluous; for we have to use these terms repeatedly, if we want to do without unnecessary definitions.
The celestial equator is an imaginary circle drawn at the heavens (round the earth), in the produced part of and parallel to the earth equator.
The ecliptic is an imaginary circle drawn at the heavens round the earth, which intersects the celestial equator at an angle of 23, 27′. In this plane of the ecliptic move the planets including sun and moon. With a deviation of only a few degrees north and south of it, the planets move in the plane of the ecliptic, and so it is possible that two planets at certain times seem to be in the same place in the heavens (conjunction), and at other times form certain angles (aspects) with the earth.
To this angle formed by the ecliptic and the equator, we owe the seasons in the temperate zones and the monsoons in the tropics.
The deviation north and south of the ecliptic is called northern and southern declination. When two or more planets have the same declination, no matter whether one is north, the other south, or both the same declination, they form also an aspect with each other and this aspect is called a parallel. The calculating of the aspects is the foundation of the astrological technics.
We take the earth as the centre of the cosmos in our calculations and the astrological tables for calculating the planetary positions and those of the Zodiacal signs are founded on this. So that we work geocentric astrology (Gea = earth), in contradistinction to heliocentric astrology, which considers the sun (helios) as centre when making calculations. The latter is to be looked upon as only an attempt to see the astrological influences from another point of view; it has given but unsatisfactory results so far. Perhaps it will promise fair for the future.
It is altogether logical that man, on account of his being a part of the earth, takes the earth as centre when calculating astrological influences.
The astronomers often reproach the astrologers for doing this they assert that the latter follow the old Ptolemaic System, whereas Copernicus clearly proved that the sun is the centre round which all planets move. What does it matter after all, if only this is taken into account in the calculations. Every one looks upon himself personally as the centre of all that surrounds him; which is natural to him, and he is also prone to do so with his planet, the earth, however much this disagrees with the phenomena his physical eyes witness.
Astrology is, as it were, the psychology of astronomy, and just as a vast field of psychology lies fallow, so it is the case with astrology. Both promise fair for the future.
In astrology we use the so-called sidereal time, to which we have to reduce the local time for our calculations. If we did not do so, we should make a mistake of about 4 minutes for every 24 hours. For while the earth revolves once, the sun moves forward about one degree in the Zodiac; – so in order to see from the earth the sun exactly in the Zenith or, put otherwise, in the meridian, the earth has to revolve one degree more than 360 degrees, which lenghtens the day 24 x 60 / 360 = 4 minutes. That is why the so-called astronomical day is not 24 hours, but 24 hours 4 minutes, whereas the sidereal day is 24 hours exactly. So that 6 hours usual time = 6 hours 1 minute sidereal time.
In the astrological planet-tables (Ephemeris) the position of the planets is given for noon at Greenwich and for every day at noon and at Greenwich the sidereal time can be found. This will cause trouble only in the beginning. For all places on the meridian of Greenwich we have only to take into account the difference in time before or after noon; but for places on another degree of longitude also the difference in time with Greenwich must not be overlooked. Every degree difference of longitude makes a difference of 4 minutes in time. In places east of Greenwich, i.e. places with eastern longitude, it is later (the sun rises there earlier) and in those with western longitude it is earlier. E.g. San Francisco, which lies on about 120 western longitude has a difference of time of 4′ x 120 = 8 hours with Greenwich. So when it is noon at Greenwich, it is as early
as 4 a.m. in San-Francisco.
For inserting the 12 zodiacal signs in the horoscope we must take into account the latitude of the place (distance from the equator), seeing that the signs rise more slanting according to the increase of distance from the equator, so that a certain irregularity arises. We need however not trouble about this, because the so-called tables of houses have been drawn up for different latitudes.
The image of the Cosmos, or as it is called macrocosmos in contradistinction to the microcosmos (man), is impressed in all that exists in nature, so in the human body as well; hence the name microcosmos, meaning cosmos on a small scale.
We shall see presently that each of the 12 signs of the Zodiac corresponds to definite parts of our body. According to the different signs the planets are placed in at the moment of birth, and according to the positions of the zodiacal signs at the moment in relation to our earth, the body of the native is shaped.
We must observe here that it is not so much the signs of the Zodiac which have that influence, as the parts of the heavens in which these signs are seen. The 12 signs were in exactly the places, respectively, in the time of Ptolemy the father of astrology, but since that time the zodiacal sings have shifted a little (about 30 degrees) and this is no longer available. The astr. ephemeris takes this into account and therefore the astronomical ephemeris points out other planets places than the astrological.
Author: C. Aq. Libra
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